Diego Simeone's charges topped the Italian giants 2-0 courtesy of late goals from center-backs Jose Gimenez and Diego Godin, drawing one step nearer to reaching the quarterfinal stage for the fifth time in six years.
Former Juve striker Alvaro Morata thought he'd opened the scoring for Atleti when Filipe Luis' pinpoint cross found the Spaniard in space and he fired home a thumping header. Instead, VAR adjudged Morata to have pushed Giorgio Chiellini from behind, denying the forward his first Los Colchoneros goal.
Atleti didn't have to wait long to score a goal that no review could overturn. Morata skied to head Thomas Lemar's corner kick into a dangerous area, and Gimenez took advantage of an awkward bounce to give the hosts a 1-0 lead in the 78th minute.
Gimenez's international mate and partner in defense Godin doubled that advantage five minutes later.
The result is just the second time all season that Juventus have failed to score in all competitions (Atalanta blanked the Old Lady in the Coppa Italia in January). The return fixture is set for March 12 in Turin.