The Tottenham supporter was detained shortly after the incident, which took place after Aubameyang opened the scoring, David Hytner of the Guardian reports.
Aubameyang celebrated his 10th-minute goal near the away end, where several objects, including the banana peel, were hurled onto the pitch. CCTV was used by the Metropolitan Police to identify the suspect, who was among several people arrested during the heated encounter.
A Tottenham spokesperson condemned the incident after the match: "Behaviour such as this is completely unacceptable and the supporter in question will be issued with a ban."
The Football Association is expected to launch an investigation even if the incident was not recorded in referee Mike Dean's match report, according to Sam Dean of The Telegraph.
The match's intense atmosphere continued after Eric Dier's equalizer following Aubameyang's opener, as tempers boiled over when Arsenal substitutes seemingly took offense to Dier's celebratory gesture toward the home supporters. Tottenham manager Mauricio Pochettino sprinted toward the arguing players alongside assistant Jesus Perez, who got into a heated argument with Arsenal midfielder Matteo Guendouzi.
"At 1-1 it was a massive fight there but I didn't know what was going on in that moment," Pochettino said. "And in the moment that I arrived, it was all relaxed, calm. I didn't know what happened but sometimes these situations happen. My intention was always to put calm.
"I don't know if it was the celebration of Dier. I don't know what upset some people there or some players that were doing the warmup. I really don't know and I didn't ask at halftime. I think the cameras are there and we will see what is going on."
The victory results in Arsenal leapfrogging Tottenham in the standings, as Unai Emery's men sit fourth on 30 points after 14 matches - Spurs have the same amount of points but trail on goal differential.