The incident occurred Oct. 11 outside Pacers Showgirls International in San Diego.
The San Diego Padres outfielder stated in the lawsuit that he suffered "catastrophic injuries, which have and will continue to cause him significant economic damage, including but not limited to his earning capacity as an elite professional baseball player."
The 32-year-old underwent surgery for a stab wound in his back following the incident. The Padres described the injury as non-life-threatening.
According to Pham's lawsuit, the stabbing took place after a fight broke out in the club's parking lot.
Pham said the establishment's security team escalated and participated in the fight, which increased the risk to him, per the lawsuit.
The major leaguer also believes the club's employees didn't contact police or try to mitigate the dangers, and that the business failed to take preventative measures despite a history of violent incidents.
Police have yet to announce any arrests in connection to the stabbing.