Taillon, who's undergone three elbow procedures during his career, including Tommy John surgery twice, struck out seven while allowing two earned runs over 4 2/3 innings against the Baltimore Orioles.
"I'm extremely grateful," Taillon said postgame, according to Bryan Hoch of MLB.com. "That game ran a little long, and I had plenty of time to get my thoughts. It's going to sound cheesy, but I'll never take a day in a big-league uniform for granted, that's for sure. I was super happy to be out there; it felt really good to compete."
Taillon also worked his way back from a testicular cancer diagnosis in 2017.
The Yankees acquired the 29-year-old in a trade with the Pittsburgh Pirates in late January.
Despite all the injuries and sickness, Taillon owns a career 3.67 ERA with a 1.24 WHIP in 83 starts over five seasons in the big leagues.